Confirmation bias: the tendency to search for, interpret, favor, and recall information in a way that confirms one’s beliefs or hypotheses, while giving disproportionately less consideration to alternative possibilities
I’m going to go out on a limb and assume that you have observed the phenomenon of humans behaving badly on the Internet. Maybe even more than a few. Slinging links to articles at one another online and then fighting about them in nasty and often abusive ways in comment sections (and then calling it “discourse”) seems to just be what we do these days. Particularly when bad things happen in the world. And particularly when said bad things touch upon some of our deepest fears and anxieties.
As one who writes regularly online, I am accustomed to the, ahem, occasional nasty response. As I was reading a few unpleasant emails a while back, a few questions began to rattle around in my brain. Why people hold the views they do? Why do these views often seem so utterly resistant to change or even modification? Why do the stark and impermeable categories within which they lump human beings seem so utterly incapable of being breached?
Perhaps similar questions have occurred to you, too. Many of us, after all, have people in our lives who, whether in face to face conversation or in their online sharing, seem to always sound the same. Their Facebook updates are a steady parade of articles and commentary reinforcing the same pro-this or anti-that view of the world. A steady drip, drip, drip of the same old thing. Perhaps you often find yourself asking, through clenched teeth, as you ponder again why you accepted this friend request in the first place, Why does everything you say/share sound exactly the same?! Have you ever considered reading any other “news” sources? Do you not see that there are other, more hopeful and inspiring stories out there (not to mention factual?!)? Are you not aware that the nasty rumour you’re sharing was disproved weeks ago by this article from a source that I like that I will now share on my timeline because I’m so annoyed at you for being incorrigibly stupid and culpably immoral….
Ah, yes, there’s the rub. We all do it, don’t we? We all tend to gravitate toward and share content that confirms what we already think/believe/are convinced of. It has surely ever been thus, but the Internet allows us to see the out working of confirmation bias in lurid, comprehensive, and depressing detail. In an ocean of content and amidst a cacophony of digital noise, we tend to screen out and select only those voices that nicely align with our own. We so often can’t be bothered to read opposing viewpoints or to engage in a conversation where our mind might actually be changed. Our digital selves thus become a steadily updating running commentary on our rightness and our virtue (and, perhaps more importantly, upon our enemies’ wrongness and regrettable catalogue of vices!).
This is true irrespective of the content of our views. It’s just how we are wired, as human beings. Our views, we are convinced, are the result of careful thought and reasoned analysis (or at least warmhearted optimism and compassion, for heaven’s sake!). The people we disagree with are probably just stupid. Quite likely evil, even.
We like our beliefs, after all. They have served us reasonably well. And we have often invested many years in them. We have read books and articles; we have listened to podcasts, lectures, maybe even a sermon or two. We have had conversations with wise people who we respect. Together, these have had a galvanizing effect upon our convictions. To concede that we might be wrong (or even a bit less right) would be to throw away all the years we have given to the fortification of our ideas and the concomitant curation of our identities that this has proved so useful toward.
So what do we do? Are we locked into the worldviews we inherited and inhabit? Are we slaves to our biases? I don’t think so. Not necessarily, at least. But I think that we must start by at least acknowledging that confirmation bias describes not only those whose views we dislike, but ourselves, too. This is all of us. We are all biased, and we all seek out reinforcements for these biases. All the time. Especially online.
This doesn’t mean that we throw out our convictions or that we (hopelessly) try to adopt some kind of bland, nebulous position that says we’re all right in our own way and that the sincerity of one’s belief is more important than the content. God help us, no. It just means that for starters we try to consistently recognize and remember that we are not so very different from those we disagree with. The same needs are being fed in all of us as we parade online with our arsenal of rightness and virtue and (impossibly) imagine that it will convince all those bad, wrong, heartless people once and for all!
And, of course, it’s not a bad idea to name our biases explicitly. For my part, I am unapologetically biased in the direction of the love I see manifested in the life of Jesus of Nazareth. I will, consequently, always seek out and cling to any scrap of evidence I can find that boosts my conviction that this self-giving, other-oriented love tells the truth about how the world should work and where the world is going. I will prioritize anything that confirms my suspicion that this love is the truest word our world has ever heard, and I will do so even when the plentiful alternatives that point to a world where this love seems foolish and naïve abound.
I want this bias to be confirmed.
Thanks for this. I have been thinking a lot on confirmation bias lately, my own and others. Exploring your own biases is difficult and uncomfortable work. I find it difficult to get far enough away from myself to even identify my biases.
The internet has really allowed us to create these huge virtual echo chambers hasn’t it? I so often see the “All Canadians/Christians/good people know that x is true” posts and this seems to come from our ability to create a virtual world that reflects our biases back at us. It allows a space in which anything (even imo crazy things) can be normalized.
The flip side of that is what Elizabeth Gilbert wisely called the “crack pipe of self righteousness.” We smoke that crack every time we come across another group of “idiots” purporting something so obviously wrong headed/stupid/evil and light into them with a righteous fury. It never works. Never changes anything or anyone. Never. I am slowly and oh so painfully learning this.
Yes, the echo chamber is alive and well (and growing!). The metaphor of the “crack pipe of self-righteousness” is an alarmingly resonant one. You’re right, it is slow and painful work to extricate ourselves from these things. But oh so necessary…